The Federer Backhand That Finally Beat Nadal

Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal first met on court in 2004, and they contested their first Grand Slam final two years later. The head-to-head has long skewed in Rafa’s favor: Entering yesterday’s match, Nadal led 23-11, including 9-2 in majors. Nadal’s defense has usually trumped Roger’s offense, but after a five-set battle in yesterday’s Australian Open final, it was Federer who came out on top. Rafa’s signature topspin was less explosive than usual, and Federer’s extremely aggressive tactics took advantage of the fast conditions to generate one opportunity after another in the deciding fifth set.

In the past, Nadal’s topspin has been particularly damaging to Federer’s one-handed backhand, one of the most beautiful shots in the sport–but not the most effective. The last time the two players met in Melbourne, in a 2014 semifinal the Spaniard won in straight sets, Nadal hit 89 crosscourt forehands, shots that challenges Federer’s backhand, nearly three-quarters of them (66) in points he won. Yesterday, he hit 122 crosscourt forehands, less than half of them in points he won. Rafa’s tactics were similar, but instead of advancing easily, he came out on the losing side.

Federer’s backhand was unusually effective yesterday, especially compared to his other matches against Nadal. It wasn’t the only thing he did well, but as we’ll see, it accounted for more than the difference between the two players.

A metric I’ve devised called Backhand Potency (BHP) illustrates just how much better Fed executed with his one-hander. BHP approximates the number of points whose outcomes were affected by the backhand: add one point for a winner or an opponent’s forced error, subtract one for an unforced error, add a half-point for a backhand that set up a winner or opponent’s error on the following shot, and subtract a half-point for a backhand that set up a winning shot from the opponent. Divide by the total number of backhands, multiply by 100*, and the result is net effect of each player’s backhand. Using shot-by-shot data from over 1,400 men’s matches logged by the Match Charting Project, we can calculate BHP for dozens of active players and many former stars.

* The average men’s match consists of approximately 125 backhands (excluding slices), while Federer and Nadal each hit over 200 in yesterday’s five-setter.

By the BHP metric, Federer’s backhand is neutral: +0.2 points per 100 backhands. Fed wins most points with his serve and his forehand; a neutral BHP indicates that while his backhand isn’t doing the damage, at least it isn’t working against him. Nadal’s BHP is +1.7 per 100 backhands, a few ticks below those of Murray and Djokovic, whose BHPs are +2.6 and +2.5, respectively. Among the game’s current elite, Kei Nishikori sports the best BHP, at +3.6, while Andre Agassi‘s was a whopping +5.0. At the other extreme, Marin Cilic‘s is -2.9, Milos Raonic‘s is -3.7, and Jack Sock‘s is -6.6. Fortunately, you don’t have to hit very many backhands to shine in doubles.

BHP tells us just how much Federer’s backhand excelled yesterday: It rose to +7.8 per 100 shots, a better mark than Fed has ever posted against his rival. Here are his BHPs for every Slam meeting:

Match       RF BHP  
2006 RG      -11.2  
2006 WIMB*    -3.4  
2007 RG       -0.7  
2007 WIMB*    -1.0  
2008 RG      -10.1  
2008 WIMB     -0.8  
2009 AO        0.0  
2011 RG       -3.7  
2012 AO       -0.2  
2014 AO       -9.9  
2017 AO*      +7.8 

* matches won by Federer

Yesterday’s rate of +7.8 per 100 shots equates to an advantage of +17 over the course of his 219 backhands. One unit of BHP is equivalent to about two-thirds of a point of match play, since BHP can award up to a combined 1.5 points for the two shots that set up and then finish a point. Thus, a +17 BHP accounts for about 11 points, exactly the difference between Federer and Nadal yesterday. Such a performance differs greatly from what Nadal has done to Fed’s backhand in the past: On average, Rafa has knocked his BHP down to -1.9, a bit more than Nadal’s effect on his typical opponent, which is a -1.7 point drop. In the 25 Federer-Nadal matches for which the Match Charting Project has data, Federer has only posted a positive BHP five times, and before yesterday’s match, none of those achievements came at a major.

The career-long trend suggests that, next time Federer and Nadal meet, the topspin-versus-backhand matchup will return to normal. The only previous time Federer recorded a +5 BHP or better against Nadal, at the 2007 Tour Finals, he followed it up by falling to -10.1 in their next match, at the 2008 French Open. He didn’t post another positive BHP until 2010, six matches later.

Outlier or not, Federer’s backhand performance yesterday changed history.  Using the approximation provided by BHP, had Federer brought his neutral backhand, Nadal would have won 52% of the 289 points played—exactly his career average against the Swiss—instead of the 48% he actually won. The long-standing rivalry has required both players to improve their games for more than a decade, and at least for one day, Federer finally plugged the gap against the opponent who has frustrated him the most.

The Difficulty (and Importance) of Finding the Backhand

One disadvantage of some one-handed backhands is that they tend to sit up a little more when they’re hit crosscourt. That gives an opponent more time to prepare and, often, enough time to run around a crosscourt shot and hit a forehand, which opens up more tactical possibilities.

With the 700 men’s matches in the Match Charting Project database (please contribute!), we can start to quantify this disadvantage–if indeed it has a negative effect on one-handers. Once we’ve determined whether one-handers can find their opponents’ backhands, we can try to answer the more important question of how much it matters.

The scenario

Let’s take all baseline rallies between right-handers. Your opponent hits a shot to your backhand side, and you have three choices: drive (flat or topspin) backhand, slice backhand, or run around to hit a forehand. You’ll occasionally go for a winner down the line and you’ll sometimes be forced to hit a weak reply down the middle, but usually, your goal is to return the shot crosscourt, ideally finding your opponent’s backhand.

Considering all righty-righty matchups including at least one player among the last week’s ATP top 72 (I wanted to include Nicolas Almagro), here are the frequency and results of each of those choices:

SHOT    FREQ  FH REP  BH REP    UFE  WINNER  PT WON  
ALL             9.9%   68.1%  10.8%    5.8%   43.1%  
SLICE  11.9%   34.1%   49.5%   7.1%    0.6%   40.2%  
FH     44.9%    2.8%   69.0%  13.0%    9.8%   42.1%  
BH     43.3%   10.7%   72.2%   9.5%    3.1%   45.0%  
                                                     
1HBH   42.6%   12.0%   69.5%   9.3%    3.8%   44.2%  
2HBH   43.5%   10.0%   73.4%   9.6%    2.8%   45.4%

“FH REP” and “BH REP” refer to a forehand or backhand reply, and we can see just how much shot selection matters in keeping the ball away from your opponent’s forehand. A slice does a very poor job, while an inside-out forehand almost guarantees a backhand reply, though it comes with an increased risk of error.

The differences between one- and two-handed backhands aren’t as stark. One-handers don’t find the backhand quite as frequently, though they hit a few more winners. They hit drive backhands a bit less often, but that doesn’t necessarily mean they are hitting forehands instead. On average, two-handers hit a few more forehands from the backhand corner, while one-handers are forced to hit more slices.

One hand, many types

Not all one-handed backhands are created equal, and these numbers bear that out. Stanislas Wawrinka‘s backhand is as effective as the best two-handers, while Roger Federer‘s is typically the jumping-off point for discussions of why the one-hander is dying.

Here are the 28 players for whom we have at least 500 instances (excluding service returns) when the player responded to a shot hit to his backhand corner. For each, I’ve shown how often he chose a drive backhand or forehand, and the frequency with which he found the backhand–excluding his own errors and winners.

Player                 BH  BH FRQ  FIND BH%  FH FRQ  FIND BH%  
Alexandr Dolgopolov     2   45.7%     94.2%   43.3%     98.7%  
Kei Nishikori           2   51.1%     94.0%   38.9%     98.1%  
Andy Murray             2   41.0%     92.4%   46.5%     98.6%  
Stanislas Wawrinka      1   48.6%     92.1%   37.5%     98.0%  
Bernard Tomic           2   33.8%     91.7%   43.8%     97.9%  
Novak Djokovic          2   47.2%     91.7%   41.4%     98.5%  
Kevin Anderson          2   41.0%     91.5%   45.8%     96.6%  
Borna Coric             2   46.5%     90.7%   44.2%     96.9%  
Pablo Cuevas            1   41.9%     90.6%   54.5%     96.5%  
Marin Cilic             2   45.4%     89.7%   43.3%     97.2%  
                                                               
Player                 BH  BH FRQ  FIND BH%  FH FRQ  FIND BH%  
Tomas Berdych           2   41.6%     89.3%   44.2%     97.5%  
Pablo Carreno Busta     2   55.4%     87.8%   41.1%     93.5%  
Fabio Fognini           2   46.0%     87.4%   47.0%     96.1%  
Richard Gasquet         1   57.2%     87.3%   32.1%     96.8%  
Andreas Seppi           2   40.3%     87.2%   50.0%     93.9%  
Nicolas Almagro         1   53.6%     86.5%   39.3%     98.0%  
Dominic Thiem           1   38.5%     86.2%   50.0%     96.5%  
Gael Monfils            2   48.0%     85.3%   46.3%     85.3%  
David Ferrer            2   48.2%     84.9%   40.4%     97.1%  
Roger Federer           1   42.7%     84.8%   43.6%     94.5%  
                                                               
Player                 BH  BH FRQ  FIND BH%  FH FRQ  FIND BH%  
Gilles Simon            2   46.9%     84.6%   46.5%     94.6%  
David Goffin            2   45.4%     84.6%   45.7%     94.9%  
Roberto Bautista Agut   2   39.6%     83.3%   46.7%     98.4%  
Jo Wilfried Tsonga      2   43.5%     82.0%   44.5%     96.3%  
Grigor Dimitrov         1   41.4%     78.6%   39.4%     92.8%  
Milos Raonic            2   31.5%     63.5%   56.5%     94.3%  
Jack Sock               2   27.0%     62.5%   62.9%     96.3%  
Tommy Robredo           1   26.6%     56.1%   62.3%     88.4%

One-handers Wawrinka, Pablo Cuevas, and Richard Gasquet (barely) are among the top half of these players, in terms of finding the backhand with their own backhand. Federer and his would-be clone Grigor Dimitrov are at the other end of the spectrum.

Taking all 60 righties I included in this analysis (not just those shown above), there is a mild negative correlation (r^2 = -0.16) between a player’s likelihood of finding the opponent’s backhand with his own and the rate at which he chooses to hit a forehand from that corner. In other words, the worse he is at finding the backhand, the more inside-out forehands he hits. Tommy Robredo and Jack Sock are the one- and two-handed poster boys for this, struggling more than any other players to find the backhand, and compensating by hitting as many forehands as possible.

However, Federer–and, to an even greater extent, Dimitrov–don’t fit this mold. The average one-hander runs around balls in their backhand corner 44.6% of the time, while Fed is one percentage point under that and Dimitrov is below 40%. Federer is perceived to be particularly aggressive with his inside-out (and inside-in) forehands, but that may be because he chooses his moments wisely.

Ultimate outcomes

Let’s look at this from one more angle. In the end, what matters is whether you win the point, no matter how you get there. For each of the 28 players listed above, I calculated the rate at which they won points for each shot selection. For instance, when Novak Djokovic hits a drive backhand from his backhand corner, he wins the point 45.4% of the time, compared to 42.3% when he hits a slice and 42.4% when he hits a forehand.

Against his own average, Djokovic is about 3.6% better when he chooses (or to think of it another way, is able to choose) a drive backhand. For all of these players, here’s how each of the three shot choices compare to their average outcome:

Player                 BH   BH W   SL W   FH W  
Dominic Thiem           1  1.209  0.633  0.924  
David Goffin            2  1.111  0.656  0.956  
Grigor Dimitrov         1  1.104  0.730  1.022  
Gilles Simon            2  1.097  0.922  0.913  
Tomas Berdych           2  1.085  0.884  0.957  
Pablo Carreno Busta     2  1.081  0.982  0.892  
Kei Nishikori           2  1.070  0.777  0.965  
Roberto Bautista Agut   2  1.055  0.747  1.027  
Stanislas Wawrinka      1  1.050  0.995  0.936  
Borna Coric             2  1.049  1.033  0.941  
                                                
Player                 BH   BH W   SL W   FH W  
Bernard Tomic           2  1.049  1.037  0.943  
Jack Sock               2  1.049  0.811  1.010  
Gael Monfils            2  1.048  1.100  0.938  
Fabio Fognini           2  1.048  0.775  0.987  
Milos Raonic            2  1.048  0.996  0.974  
Nicolas Almagro         1  1.046  0.848  0.964  
Kevin Anderson          2  1.038  1.056  0.950  
Novak Djokovic          2  1.036  0.966  0.969  
Andy Murray             2  1.031  1.039  0.962  
Roger Federer           1  1.023  1.005  0.976  
                                                
Player                 BH   BH W   SL W   FH W  
Richard Gasquet         1  1.020  0.795  1.033  
Andreas Seppi           2  1.019  0.883  1.008  
David Ferrer            2  1.018  0.853  1.020  
Alexandr Dolgopolov     2  1.010  1.010  0.987  
Marin Cilic             2  1.006  1.009  0.991  
Pablo Cuevas            1  0.987  0.425  1.048  
Jo Wilfried Tsonga      2  0.956  0.805  1.095  
Tommy Robredo           1  0.845  0.930  1.079

In this view, Dimitrov–along with his fellow one-handed flame carrier Dominic Thiem–looks a lot better. His crosscourt backhand doesn’t find many backhands, but it is by far his most effective shot from his own backhand corner. We would expect him to win more points with a drive backhand than with a slice (since he probably opts for slices in more defensive positions), but it’s surprising to me that his backhand is so much better than the inside-out forehand.

While Dimitrov and Thiem are more extreme than most, almost all of these players have better results with crosscourt drive backhands than with inside-out (or inside-in forehands). Only five–including Robredo but, shockingly, not including Sock–win more points after hitting forehands from the backhand corner.

It’s clear that one-handers do, in fact, have a slightly more difficult time forcing their opponents to hit backhands. It’s much less clear how much it matters. Even Federer, with his famously dodgy backhand and even more famously dominant inside-out forehand, is slightly better off hitting a backhand from his backhand corner. We’ll never know what would happen if Fed had Djokovic’s backhand instead, but even though Federer’s one-hander isn’t finding as many backhands as Novak’s two-hander does, it’s getting the job done at a surprisingly high rate.

Measuring the Effectiveness of Backhand Returns

One-handed backhands can be beautiful, but they aren’t always the best tools for the return of serve. Some of the players with the best one-handers in the game must often resort to slicing backhand returns–Stanislas Wawrinka, for example, slices 68% of backhand first serve returns and 40% of backhand second serve returns, while Andy Murray uses the slice 41% and 3%, respectively.

Using the 650 men’s matches in the Match Charting Database, I looked at various aspects of backhand serve returns to try to get a better sense of the trade-offs involved in using a one-handed backhand. Because the matches in the MCP aren’t completely representative of the ATP tour, the numbers are approximate. But given the size and breadth of the sample, I believe the results are broadly indicative of men’s tennis as a whole.

At the most general level, players with double-handed backhands are slightly better returners, putting roughly the same number of returns in play (about 56%) and winning a bit more often–46.9% to 45.7%–when they do so. The gap is a bit wider when we look at backhand returns put in play: 46.5% of points won to 44.7%. While the favorable two-hander numbers are influenced by the historically great returning of Novak Djokovic, two-handers still have an edge if we reduce his weight in the sample or remove him entirely.

Unsurprisingly, players realize that two-handed backhands are more effective returns, and they serve accordingly. The MCP divides serves into three zones–down the tee, body, and wide–and I’ve re-classified those as “to the forehand,” “to the body,” and “to the backhand” depending on the returner’s dominant hand and whether the point is in the deuce or ad court. While we can’t identify exactly where servers aimed those to-the-body serves, we can determine some of their intent from serves aimed at the corners.

Against returners with two-handed backhands, servers went for the backhand corner on 44.2% of first serves and 34.8% of second serves. Against one-handers, they aimed for the same spot on 47.3% of first serves and 40.9% of second serves. Looking at the same question from another angle, backhands make up 61.7% of the returns in play hit by one-handers compared to 59.0% for double-handers. It seems likely that one-handers more aggressively run around backhands to hit forehand returns, so this last comparison probably understates the degree to which servers aim for single-handed backhands.

When servers do manage to find the backhand side of a single-hander, they’re often rewarded with a slice return. On average, one-handers (excluding Roger Federer, who is overrepresented in this dataset) use the slice on 53.9% of their backhand first-serve returns and 32.3% of their backhand second-serve returns. Two-handers use the slice 20.5% of the time against firsts and only 2.5% of the time against seconds.

For both types of players, against first and second serves, slice returns are less effective than flat or topspin backhand returns. This isn’t surprising, either–defensive shots are often chosen in defensive situations, so the difference in effectiveness is at least partly due to the difference in the quality of the serves themselves. Still, since one-handers choose to go to the slice so much more frequently, it’s valuable to know how the types of returns compare:

Return Type   BH in play W% SL in play W% 
1HBH vs Firsts        43.3%         37.6% 
1HBH vs Seconds       46.0%         44.1% 
                        
2HBH vs Firsts        46.8%         36.2% 
2HBH vs Seconds       48.6%         41.9%

(Again, I’ve excluded Fed from the 1HBH averages.)

In three of the four rows, there’s a difference of several percentage points between the effectiveness of slice returns and flat or topspin returns, as measured by the ultimate outcome of the point. The one exception–second-serve returns by one-handers–reminds us that the slice can be an offensive weapon, even if it’s rarely used as one in the modern game. Some players–including Federer, Feliciano Lopez, Grigor Dimitrov, and Bernard Tomic–are more effective with slice returns than flat or topspin returns against either first or second serves.

However, these players are the exceptions, and in the theoretical world where we can set all else equal, a slice return is the inferior choice. All players have to hit slice returns sometimes, and many of those seem to be forced by powerful serving, but the fact remains: one-handers hit slices much more than two-handers do, and despite the occasional offensive opportunity, slice returns are more likely to hand the point to the server.

These differences are real, but they are still modest. A good returner with a one-handed backhand is considerably better than a bad returner with a two-hander, and it’s even possible to have a decent return game while hitting mostly slices. All that said, in the aggregate, a one-handed backhand is a bit of a liability on the return. It will take further research to determine whether other benefits–such as the sizzling down-the-line winners we’ve come to expect from the likes of Wawrinka and Richard Gasquet–outweigh the costs.

Stubborn Richard and Fighting Flavia

We all know how great Richard Gasquet‘s backhand is.  It’s arguably the best one-hander in the game, and the down-the-line version is right up there with with any other men’s backhandweapon, one- or two-handed.

What has struck me in his last two matches is that, unlike virtually every other top player, he never runs around it.  Even Stanislas Wawrinka, another man with a claim on the “best one-hander” title, will frequently take several steps to get in position to hit a forehand from the backhand corner.

Gasquet doesn’t do that.  In 277 points yesterday, he ran all the way around a backhand once, and there were two or three other shots when he took a couple of steps to hit a forehand when he might have taken one to hit a backhand.  In other words, he’s totally comfortable hitting his backhand from anywhere on the court, against any spin, at any height, and he trusts it as his go-to offensive shot.

In my detailed stats tables, I added a chart last night showing shot types–how many each player hit, grouped into various categories.  Against David Ferrer, Gasquet hit 296 backhands (excluding slices) to 222 forehands, a ratio of 1.33.  Ferrer hit 274 to 297, a 0.923 ratio.  Ferrer is more typical.  He can hit solid crosscourt backhands all day long–even crush a down-the-line winner on occasion, but given the opportunity, he’ll move around it and hit a more powerful inside-out forehand.

Of the last five men’s matches I’ve charted, Gasquet’s backhand preference stands out.  Marcos Baghdatis vs Kevin Anderson: 0.58 for Baghdatis, 0.36 for Anderson.  Lleyton Hewitt vs Brian Baker?  0.72 for Hewitt, 0.86 for Baker. Tomas Berdych, 0.65, against Julien Benneteau, 0.73.  Against Denis Istomin, Andy Murray‘s ratio was 0.56.  Only Istomin is anywhere near Gasquet’s category, with a ratio of 1.15, and that may be more a testament to Murray’s ability to find his opponent’s backhand than anything else.

For all the beauty of Gasquet’s backhand, much of the time it is a simple rallying shot.  Move him deep into that corner, and he generally won’t hurt you. I’m not convinced all those backhands make up a wise tactical decision–perhaps more inside-out forehands would be in order.  Certainly, he’ll need to come up with something out of the ordinary when he faces Rafael Nadal on Saturday.

From the day the draw was announced, Flavia Pennetta‘s quarter was considered the wide-open section of the field.  Except, until yesterday, nobody thought of it as Pennetta’s quarter.  Technically it was fourth-seed Sara Errani‘s to lose, which she promptly did, to Pennetta in the second round.  It was also considered fair game for Caroline Wozniacki … who lost in the third round.  Then it was the domain of rising star Simona Halep … another Pennetta victim.

Surely Flavia’s run ends tomorrow at the hands of Victoria Azarenka.  In the meantime, let’s take a moment to celebrate a few amazing aspects of her accomplishment thus far.

Ranked 83rd–and ranked outside of the top 100 only six weeks ago–it took a late injury withdrawal to get her into the main draw.  Now, she is only the 10th woman in the Open era to reach a Grand Slam semifinal while ranked outside of the top 80.  Just one previous US Open semifinalist–Angelique Kerber two years ago–was ranked so low.

Another remarkable aspect of Pennetta’s run is that she has reached her first Slam semifinal at the age of 31.  Only three women–Gigi Fernandez, Nathalie Tauziat, and Wendy Turnbull–reached their first Slam semi after turning 30.  (Fernandez did it while ranked outside the top 80, making her the proto-Flavia.)  Turnbull is the only first-time semifinalist to have done so while older than Pennetta is now, by a couple of months.  She accomplished that feat at the 1984 US Open.  Amazingly, it wasn’t Turnbull’s only moment in the spotlight–she reached the semis of the Australian a few months later, beating a young Steffi Graf along the way.  She even reached the quarters at the following year’s US Open.

Finally, we may marvel at the fact that Pennetta, once a top-ten player, did not reach a semifinal until this, her 41st slam.  Also near the top of the all-time leaderboard, but not a record.  Francesca Schiavone had played 41 slams before reaching her first semi in the French Open a few years ago.  Tauziat makes another appearance here; she needed 44 tries before winning five straight matches.  The most dogged of all WTA players must be Elena Likhotseva, who played 56 career Slams, not making it to the semifinal in her 46th try.

Most of these precedents jibe with our intuition that, no matter how hot she is, Flavia doesn’t stand much of a chance against Vika.  But a couple of these cases–Schiavone with her two deep French open runs, and Turnbull with her pair of late-career semifinals–suggest that this could be more than a one-off for the Italian.

Rafael Nadal has yet to lose serve at the US Open, and has a string of 82 consecutive service holds going back to Cincinnati.  I plan to have more on this before his semifinal match.

Here’s a win-probability graph for yesterday’s Gasquet-Ferrer five-setter. And if you somehow missed it the last five times I linked to it, here are my detailed stats from that match.

I’ll chart one of the two men’s quarters today, though I’m not yet sure which one.  Keep an eye on my Twitter account, as I’ll post those stats after each set.

And last for today, here’s an example of thorough data collection that tennis organizations will almost certainly fail to follow.

The State of the One-Handed Backhand

Don’t write the eulogy just yet. The one-handed backhand isn’t the common sight that it used to be, but there are still plenty of them out there.  When the current generation retires, however, we might have an endangered species on our hands.  Here’s a quick look at the prevalence of the one-hander in today’s men’s game.

About 1 in 5 players (62 of the top 300) at the ATP and Challenger level use a one-handed backhand.  To focus more narrowly: 10 of the top 50, 14 of those ranked 51-100, 13 from 101 to 150, 9 between 151 and 200, and 8 each in ranges 201-250 and 251-300.

One-handed backhands are slightly more popular among righties than lefties.  Among the top 200, there are 28 lefties, six of whom (21.4%) have one-handers.   That compares to 23.3% among righties.

When we split the top 300 into quartiles by age, a distinct preference appears.  About 30% of the oldest half of the top 300 (those born in 1986 or before) use one-handed backhands: 23 of the oldest 75 and 22 of the next-oldest quartile.  Of the second-youngest quartile–those born between the beginning of 1987 and July 1989, there are only 10 one-handers, or 13.3%.  The youngest quartile is bleakest, with only seven one-handers among the 75 players. Six of the seven are Europeans, including the youngest man in the top 300Dominic Thiem. The only non-European is the American Daniel Kosakowski.

To summarize more concisely if a bit less dramatically, the average age of those with one-handed backhands in the top 300 is 28 years, 63 days, while the average age of two-handers is 26 years, 103 days.  Given the number of second tier players clustered in the late-20s range, that is a bigger difference than it might sound.

Last year there were 137 matches at the ATP level between two players with one-handed backhands.  At all 137 of those matches, someone was heard to say, “Two one-handed backhands! You don’t see that much anymore.”