How Argentina’s Road Warriors Defied the Davis Cup Home-Court Odds

The conventional wisdom has long held that there is a home court advantage in Davis Cup. It makes sense: In almost every sport, there is a documented advantage to playing at home, and Davis Cup gives us what seem to be the most extreme home courts in tennis.

However, Argentina won this year’s competition despite playing all four of their ties on the road. After the first round this season, only one of seven hosts managed to give the home crowd a victory. Bob Bryan has some ideas as to why:

https://twitter.com/Bryanbros/status/803244964784308227

Which is it? Do players excel in front of an enthusiastic home crowd, on a surface chosen for their advantage? Or do they suffer from the distractions that Bryan cites?

To answer that question, I looked at 322 Davis Cup ties, encompassing all World Group and World Group Play-off weekends back to 2003. Of those, the home side won 196, of 60.9% of the time. So far, the conventional wisdom looks pretty good.

But we need to do more. To check whether the hosting teams were actually better, meaning that they should have won more ties regardless of venue, I used singles and doubles Elo ratings to simulate every match of every one of those ties. (In cases where the tie was decided before the fourth or fifth rubber, I simulated matches between the best available players who could have contested those matches.) Based on those simulations, the hosts “should” have won 171 of the 322 ties, or 53.1%.

The evidence in favor of home-court advantage–and against Bryan’s “distractions” theory–is strong. Home sides have won World Group ties about 15% more often than we would expect. Some of that is likely due to the hosts’ ability to choose surface. I doubt surface accounts for the whole effect, since some court types (like the medium-slow hard court in Croatia last weekend) don’t heavily favor either side, and many ties are rather lopsided regardless of surface. Teasing out the surface advantage from the more intangible home-court edge is a worthy subject to study, but I won’t be going any further in that direction today.

If distractions are a danger to hosts, we might expect see the home court advantage erode in later rounds. Many early-round matchups are minor news events compared to semifinals and finals. (On the other hand, there were over 100 representatives of the Argentinian press in Croatia last weekend, so the effect isn’t entirely straightforward.) The following table shows how home sides have fared in each round:

Round         Ties  Home Win %  Wins/Exp  
First Round    112       58.9%      1.11  
Quarterfinal    56       60.7%      1.16  
Semifinal       28       82.1%      1.30  
Final           14       57.1%      1.14  
Play-off       112       58.9%      1.14

Aside from a blip at the semifinal level, home-court advantage is quite consistent from one round to the next. The “Wins/Exp” shows how much better the hosts fared than my simulations would have predicted; for instance, in first-round encounters, hosts won 11% more ties than expected.

There is also no meaningful difference between home court advantage on day one and day three. The hosts’s singles players win 15% more matches than my simulations would expect on day one, and 15% more on day three. The day three divide is intriguing: Home players win the fourth rubber 12% more often than expected, but they claim the deciding fifth rubber a whopping 23% more frequently than they would in neutral environments. However, only 91 of the 322 ties involved five live rubbers, so the extreme home advantage in the deciding match may just be nothing more than a random spike.

The doubles rubber is less likely to be influenced by venue. Compared to the 15% advantage enjoyed by World Group singles players, the hosting side’s doubles pairings win only 6% more often than expected. This again raises the issue of surface: Not only are doubles results less influenced by court speed than singles results, but home sides are less likely to choose a surface based on the desire of their doubles team, if that preference clashes with the needs of their singles players.

Argentina on the road

In the sense that they never played at home or chose a surface, Argentina beat the odds in all four rounds this year. Of course, home court advantage can only take you so far; it helps to have a good squad. My simulations indicate that the Argentines had a nearly 4-in-5 chance of defeating their Polish first-round opponents on neutral ground, while Juan Martin del Potro and company had a more modest 59% chance of beating the Italians in Italy.

For the last two rounds, though, the Argentines were fighting an uphill battle. The semifinal venue in Glasglow didn’t matter much; the prospect of facing the Murray brothers meant Argentina had less than a 10% chance of advancing no matter what the location. And as I wrote last week, Croatia was rightfully favored in the final. Playing yet another tie on the road simply made the task more difficult.

Once we adjust my simulations of each tie for home court advantage, it turns out that Argentina’s chances of winning the Cup this year were less than 1%, barely 1 in 200. The following table shows the last 14 winners, along with the number of ties they played at home and their chances of winning the Cup in my simulations, given which countries they ended up facing and the players who turned up for each tie:

Year  Winner  Home Ties  Win Prob  
2016  ARG             0      0.5%  
2015  GBR             3     18.9%  
2014  SUI             2     54.7%  
2013  CZE             1     10.5%  
2012  CZE             3     19.7%  
2011  ESP             2     12.2%  
2010  SRB             3     17.6%  
2009  ESP             4     44.0%  
2008  ESP             1     14.3%  
2007  USA             2     24.4%  
2006  RUS             2      1.7%  
2005  CRO             2      7.4%  
2004  ESP             3     23.8%  
2003  AUS             3     15.9%

In the time span I’ve studied, only the 2006 Russian squad managed anything close to the same season-long series of upsets. (I don’t yet have adequate doubles data to analyze earlier Davis Cup competitions.)  At the other end of the spectrum, the simulations emphasize how smoothly Switzerland swept through the bracket in 2014. A wide-open draw, together with Roger Federer, certainly helps.

It was tough going for Argentina, and the luck of the home-court draw made it tougher. Without a solid #2 singles player or an elite doubles specialist, it isn’t likely to get much easier. For all that, they’ll open the 2017 Davis Cup campaign against Italy with at least one unfamiliar weapon in their arsenal: They finally get to play a tie at home.

Best of Five and Marin Cilic’s Improbable Collapse

Leading up to the final two rubbers of this year’s Davis Cup final in Croatia, the hosts were heavily favored. They held a 2-1 advantage, and both of the remaining singles matches would pit a Croatian against a lower-ranked Argentine. To win the Cup, they only needed to win one of those matches.

When Marin Cilic built a two-set lead over Juan Martin del Potro, Croatian fans could be forgiven for thinking it was in the bag. Instead, Delpo fought back to win in five sets, and Federico Delbonis upset a flat Ivo Karlovic to seal Argentina’s first-ever Davis Cup title. Some people will point to the Cilic-Delpo match time of 4:53 as another reason to switch to best-of-three. The rest of us will see it as yet another reminder of why best-of-five must retain its role on tennis’s biggest stages.

In a best-of-three format, Cilic would’ve claimed the Cup for Croatia after two hours of play. Instead, he merely came very close. My Elo singles ratings gave Cilic a 36.3% chance of beating Delpo and Karlovic a 75.8% chance of defeating Delbonis. Taken together, that’s a likelihood of 84.6% that Croatia would claim the trophy. After Cilic won the first two sets, his odds increased to about 81%, pushing Croatia’s chances over the 95% mark. In fourteen previous tries, del Potro had never recovered from an 0-2 deficit.

And then Argentina came back. Comebacks from two sets down tend to stick in our memory, so it’s easy to forget just how rare they are. Yesterday’s match was only the 28th such comeback in 2016. That’s out of a pool of 656 best-of-five contests, including 431 in which one player built a 2-0 lead. This year isn’t unusual: Going back to 2000, the number of wins from a 0-2 deficit has never exceeded 32.

Comebacks from 0-2 are even rarer in Davis Cup. At the World Group level this year, including play-offs, Delpo was the 61st player to fall into a 0-2 hole, but he was only the second to recover and win the match. The other was Jack Sock, whose July comeback (over Cilic–more on that in a bit) wasn’t enough to move his USA squad into the semifinals. Since 2000, 5.8% of 2-0 leads turn into comeback victories, but only 4.3% of World Group 2-0 leads do the same.

Cilic’s season has defied the numbers. In addition to his 2-0 collapses against Sock and del Potro, he held a 2-0 advantage before losing to Roger Federer in the Wimbledon quarterfinals. His 2016 is only the third time in ATP history that a player lost three or more matches after winning the first two sets. The previous two–Viktor Troicki’s 2015 season and Jan Siemerink’s 1997–are unlikely to make Cilic feel any better.

Still, even Cilic’s record indicates the rarity of victories from an 0-2 disadvantage. Before the Wimbledon quarterfinal, the Croatian had never lost a match after taking the first two sets, for a record of 60-0. Even now, his Davis Cup record after going up two sets to love is a respectable 11-2. His overall career mark of 95.7% (66-3) is better than average.

Unless Cilic crumbles under certain spotlights (but not others, as evidenced by his five-set win over Delbonis on Friday), his series of unfortunate collapses may just be a fluke. In addition to that 60-0 streak, he has never had a problem converting one-set leads in best-of-three matches. This year, he won 29 out of 33 best-of-threes after winning the first set, an above-average rate of 88%. (And one of the losses was against Dominic Thiem, so he never had a chance.)

The longer the match format, the more likely that the better player emerges triumphant. That’s why there are fewer upsets in best-of-five than in best-of-three, and why tiebreaks are often little better than flips of a coin. Usually that works in favor of a top-tenner such as Cilic: In most matchups he is the superior player. But in two of his three collapses this season, he’s fallen victim to a favorite who uses the longer format to overcome an early run of poor form.

The debate over best-of-five will surely continue, despite this weekend’s Davis Cup tie adding another unforgettable five-set epic to an already long list. But after Delpo’s performance yesterday, you’ll have a harder time finding someone to campaign for shorter matches–especially in Argentina.

Forecasting Davis Cup Doubles

One of the most enjoyable aspects of Davis Cup is the spotlight it shines on doubles. At ATP events, doubles matches are typically relegated to poorly-attended side courts. In Davis Cup, doubles gets a day of its own, and crowds turn out in force. Even better, the importance of Davis Cup inspires many players who normally skip doubles to participate.

Because singles specialists are more likely to play doubles, and because most Davis Cup doubles teams are not regular pairings, forecasting these matches is particularly difficult. In the past, I haven’t even tried. But now that we have D-Lo–Elo ratings for doubles–it’s a more manageable task.

To my surprise, D-Lo is even more effective with Davis Cup than it is with regular-season tour-level matches. D-Lo correctly predicts the outcome of about 65% of tour-level doubles matches since 2003. For Davis Cup World Group and World Group Play-Offs in that time frame, D-Lo is right 70% of the time. To put it another way, this is more evidence that Davis Cup is about the chalk.

What’s particularly odd about that result is that D-Lo itself isn’t that confident in its Davis Cup forecasts. For ATP events, D-Lo forecasts are well-calibrated, meaning that if you look at 100 matches where the favorite is given a 60% chance of winning, the favorite will win about 60 times. For the Davis Cup forecasts, D-Lo thinks the favorite should win about 60% of the time, but the higher-rated team ends up winning 70 matches out of 100.

Davis Cup’s best-of-five format is responsible for part of that discrepancy. In a typical ATP doubles match, the no-ad scoring and third-set tiebreak introduce more luck into the mix, making upsets more likely. A matchup that would result in a 60% forecast in the no-ad, super-tiebreak format translates to a 64.5% forecast in the best-of-five format. That accounts for about half the difference: Davis Cup results are less likely to be influenced by luck.

The other half may be due to the importance of the event. For many players, regular-season doubles matches are a distant second priority to singles, so they may not play at a consistent level from one match to the next. In Davis Cup, however, it’s a rare competitor who doesn’t give the doubles rubber 100% of their effort. Thus, we appear to have quite a few matches in which D-Lo picks the winner, but since it uses primarily tour-level results, it doesn’t realize how heavily the winner should have been favored.

Incidentally, home-court advantage doesn’t seem to play a big role in doubles outcomes. The hosting side has won 52.6% of doubles matches, an edge which could have as much to do with hosts’ ability to choose the surface as it is does with screaming crowds and home cooking. This isn’t a factor that affects D-Lo forecasts, as the system’s predictions are as accurate when it picks the away side as when it picks the home side.

Forecasting Argentina-Croatia doubles

Here are the D-Lo ratings for the eight nominated players this weekend. The asterisks indicate those players who are currently slated to contest tomorrow’s doubles rubber:

Player                 Side  D-Lo     
Juan Martin del Potro  ARG   1759     
Leonardo Mayer         ARG   1593  *  
Federico Delbonis      ARG   1540     
Guido Pella            ARG   1454  *  
                                      
Ivan Dodig             CRO   1856  *  
Marin Cilic            CRO   1677     
Ivo Karlovic           CRO   1580     
Franco Skugor          CRO   1569  *

As it stands now, Croatia has a sizable advantage. Based on the D-Lo ratings of the currently scheduled doubles teams, the home side has a 189-point edge, which converts to a 74.8% probability of winning. But remember, that’s the chance of winning a no-ad, super-tiebreak match, with all the luck that entails. In best-of-five, that translates to a whopping 83.7% chance of winning.

Making matters worse for Argentina, it’s likely that Croatia could improve their side. Argentina could increase their odds of winning the doubles rubber by playing Juan Martin del Potro, but given Delpo’s shaky physical health, it’s unlikely he’ll play all three days. Marin Cilic, on the other hand, could very well play as much as possible. A Cilic-Ivan Dodig pairing would have a 243-point advantage over Leonardo Mayer and Guido Pella, which translates to an 89% chance of winning a best-of-five match. Even Mayer’s Davis Cup heroics are unlikely to overcome a challenge of that magnitude.

Given the likelihood that Pella will sit on the bench for every meaningful singles match, it’s easy to wonder if there is a better option. Sure enough, in Horacio Zeballos, Argentina has a quality doubles player sitting at home. The two-time Grand Slam doubles semifinalist has a current D-Lo rating of 1758, almost identical to del Potro’s. Paired with Mayer, Zeballos would bring Argentina’s chances of upsetting a Dodig-Franco Skugor team to 43%. Zeballos-Mayer would also have a 32% chance of defeating Dodig-Cilic.

A full Argentina-Croatia forecast

With the doubles rubber sorted, let’s see who is likely to win the 2016 Davis Cup. Here are the Elo– and D-Lo-based forecasts for each currently-scheduled match, shown from the perspective of Croatia:

Rubber                      Forecast (CRO)  
Cilic v Delbonis                     90.8%  
Karlovic v del Potro                 15.8%  
Dodig/Skugor v Mayer/Pella           83.7%  
Cilic v del Potro                    36.3%  
Karlovic v Delbonis                  75.8%

Elo still believes Delpo is an elite-level player, which is why it makes him the favorite in the pivotal fourth rubber against Cilic. The system is less positive about Federico Delbonis, who it ranks 68th in the world, against his #41 spot on the ATP computer.

These match-by-match forecasts imply a 74.2% probability that Croatia will win the tie. That’s more optimistic than the betting market which, a few hours before play begins, gives Croatia about a 65% edge.

However, most of the tweaks we could make would move the needle further toward a Croatia victory. Delpo’s body may not allow him to play two singles matches at full strength, and the gap in singles skill between him and Mayer is huge. Croatia could improve their doubles chances if Cilic plays. And if there is a home-court or surface advantage, it would probably work against the South Americans.

Even more likely than a Croatian victory is a 1-1 split of the first two matches. If that happens, everything will hang in the balance tomorrow, when the world tunes in to watch a doubles match.

Should Andy Murray Skip the Tour Finals to Prepare for Davis Cup?

After advancing to the Davis Cup final, Andy Murray floated the idea that he might skip the World Tour Finals to prepare. The Belgian hosts are likely to choose clay for November’s Davis Cup tie (in part to make Murray less comfortable), and if Murray reached the final round in London the week before, he would have only four days off to recover and adjust to the different surface.

A lot of factors will go into Murray’s ultimate decision: how much importance he gives each event, how much he thinks fatigue will affect him, and how likely it is that the ATP would sanction him for skipping a required event. For today, I’ll have to ignore all of those and focus on the one most amenable to analysis: The effect of switching surfaces right before a Davis Cup tie.

Shifting from one surface to another immediately before Davis Cup is common. From 2009 to the present, there have been just over 2,000 World Group, Group 1, and Group 2 Davis Cup singles rubbers, and almost 450 of those involved at least one player who had played the previous week [1] on a different surface. It’s very rare that both players switched surfaces, so we have a sample of 432 matches in which one player changed surfaces from the previous week, and the other player either played or (presumably) prepared on the same surface.

At the simplest level of analysis, the switchers have been surprisingly effective. In those 432 matches between switchers and non-switchers, the switchers won 275, or 63.6% of the time. When we narrow the sample to the 130 times the switcher reached at least the round of 16 the week before Davis Cup (and, thus, had even less time to adjust), the results are surprisingly similar: 82 wins, or 63.1% in favor of the switchers.

Of course, there are all sorts of biases that could be working in favor of the switchers. The better the player, the less likely he can change his schedule to better prepare for Davis Cup, leaving him stuck on the “wrong” surface the week before a tie. And the better the player, the more likely he was a switcher in the smaller sample, one of those who reached the round of 16 the week before.

To evaluate the effect of switching, then, we must proceed with more subtlety. If switchers are more likely to be the favorites, we need to consider each player’s skill level and estimate how often switchers should have won. To do that, we can use JRank, my player rating system with surface-specific estimates for each competitor.

Immediately, we lose about 15% of our sample due to matches involving at least one player who didn’t have a rating at the time [2]. These are almost all Group 2 matches, so its doubtful that we lose very much. In the slightly smaller pool of 361 matches, the switcher won 62.0%, and when the switcher reached the round of 16 the previous week, he won 60.0%.

JRank confirms that the sample is strongly biased toward switchers. The player changing surfaces was favored in 69.8% of these contests. To take an extreme example, Murray went from hard courts at the 2013 US Open to clay courts in the World Group playoff against Croatia. Against Borna Coric, who hadn’t played the week before, Murray was a 99.1% favorite, and of course he won the match.

Once we calculate the probability that the switcher won each of the 361 matches, it turns out that the switchers “should have” won 227, or 62.8% of the time. That’s almost indistinguishable from the historical record, when the switchers won 224 matches. In the smaller sample of 120 matches when the switcher reached the round of 16 the previous week, switchers “should have” won 72 matches. As it happened, they won exactly 72.

In other words, it doesn’t appear to be a disadvantage to play Davis Cup matches on an unfamiliar surface. JRank-based predictions are primarily based on “regular” matches, so if switchers are performing at the level that JRank forecasts for them, they’re playing as well as they would at, say, the third round of a Slam, when the surface is familiar.

This isn’t a clear answer to Murray’s dilemma, of course. If he plays, say, Roger Federer and Novak Djokovic in back-to-back three-setters on Saturday and Sunday, then travels to a different venue, handles tons of press, and practices with a different set of coaches and fellow players before a big match the following Friday, he faces more of a challenge than your typical surface-switcher in our dataset.

However, there’s little evidence that surface-switching alone is a good reason to skip the Tour Finals. If history is any guide, Murray will play very well on the Belgian clay–just as well as he would at the same venue in the middle of the clay season.

Continue reading Should Andy Murray Skip the Tour Finals to Prepare for Davis Cup?

Unlikely Davis Cup Finalists and an Early Forecast for Ghent

Among nations that have reached Davis Cup finals, neither Great Britain or Belgium quite fits the mold.

The fortunes of the UK team depend almost entirely on Andy Murray. If you have to choose one player, you couldn’t do much better, but it’s hardly a strategy with lots of room for error. While the Belgian team is a bit more balanced, it doesn’t boast the sort of superstar singles player that most successful nations can send into battle.

Thanks to injury and apathy, the Brits and the Belgians haven’t defeated the level of competition usually required of Davis Cup finalists. Belgium hasn’t had to face any singles player better than Leonardo Mayer, and the only top-ten singles player to show up against Britain was Gilles Simon.

Measured by season-best singles rankings, these are two of the weakest Davis Cup finalists in the modern era [1]. The last time a finalist didn’t have two top-50 singles players was 1987, when the Indian team snuck past the Australians in the semifinals, only to be trounced by a powerhouse Swedish side in the final. This year, neither side has two top-50 players [2].

It’s even worse for the Belgians: David Goffin, their best singles player, has never topped 14th in the rankings. Only three times since 2000 has a nation reached the final without a top-ten player, and to find a side that won the Davis Cup without a top-tenner, we must go back to 1996, when the French team, headed by Arnaud Boetsch and Cedric Pioline, claimed the Cup.

Even when a nation reaches the final without a top-ten singles player, they typically have another singles player in the same range. Yet Belgium’s Steve Darcis has only now crept back into the top 60.

Despite a widespread belief that you can throw logic out the window in the riot that is Davis Cup, the better players still tend to win. Here are Elo-rating-based predictions for the four probable rubbers on clay:

  • Murray d. Darcis (94.3%)
  • Goffin d. GBR-2 (90.1%)
  • Murray d. Goffin (86.7%)
  • Darcis d. GBR-2 (78.1%)

Predicting the outcome of any doubles matches–let alone best-of-five-setters with players yet to be determined, probably including one very good but low-ranked player in Andy Murray–is beyond me. But based on the Murray brothers’ performance against Australia and the Belgians’ lack of a true doubles specialist, the edge has to go to Britain–let’s say 65%.

If we accept these individual probabilities, Great Britain has a 65.2% chance of winning the Davis Cup. That doesn’t take into account home court advantage, which will probably be a factor and favor the Belgians [3].

It’s a huge opportunity for the Brits, but it’s still quite a chance for Belgium, which hasn’t been this close to the Davis Cup for a century.  After all, the Cup is inscribed with country names, not judgments about that nation’s easy path to the final.

Continue reading Unlikely Davis Cup Finalists and an Early Forecast for Ghent

Berdych, Djokovic, and Stars in Davis Cup

Tennis fans–especially the more old-fashioned among us–tend to agree on some things that players should always do.  Among them: revere Wimbledon, admit to a net touch, and play Davis Cup.

The top singles players on the two sides of last weekend’s tie between Serbia and the Czech Republic are good examples of what fans like to see.  Tomas Berdych has played 12 of 14 Davis Cup ties while a member of the top ten, and in that time, the Czech team has never lost a tie because he didn’t show up.  Novak Djokovic hasn’t been quite as reliable, playing singles in 13 of 18 ties since breaking into the top ten, though of the five he didn’t play, Serbia lost only one.

However, plenty of tennis megastars have been even more consistent cogs on their national teams.  In the years when Goran Ivanisevic was in the top ten, his Croatian team played ten ties, and Goran was there for all 10.  Since 1991, three other players have played at least ten ties while missing only one: Yevgeny Kafelnikov, Lleyton Hewitt, and Michael Stich.

Aside from Berdych and Djokovic, today’s top players are not so reliable.  Roger Federer has participated in 14 of 24 ties since he became a top-tenner, and the Swiss side has lost eight of the ten ties he’s missed.  Andy Murray has offered his services for only 5 of 12 as a top ten player, and the Brits have lost four of their seven Murray-less weekend.

Even less of a Davis Cup stalwart than Murray, however, is Rafael Nadal.  Thanks to a combination of injury, fatigue, and a frequent lack of necessity, Rafa has played singles in only 10 of 25 ties since breaking into the top ten.

The table below compares all players who, since 1991, have been in the top ten while their countries played at least ten Davis Cup ties.  It shows their record when participating (“In W-L”), their team’s success rate when they sat out (“Out W-L”), the percentage of ties in which they took part (“In%”), and the percentage of ties in which either they played or their team won anyway (“AllGood%”).

(I only count someone as participating if he contested at least one singles match.  In a few cases–such as Serbia’s defeat last year of Sweden, in which Djokovic only played doubles–that blurs the line between wins with and without the player.)

Player              In W-L  Out W-L     In%  AllGood%  
Goran Ivanisevic       5-5      0-0  100.0%    100.0%  
Yevgeny Kafelnikov    13-6      0-1   95.0%     95.0%  
Lleyton Hewitt        10-3      0-1   92.9%     92.9%  
Michael Stich          8-2      0-1   90.9%     90.9%  
Andy Roddick          15-5      0-3   87.0%     87.0%  
David Nalbandian      11-2      0-2   86.7%     86.7%  
Tomas Berdych          9-3      2-0   85.7%    100.0%  
Carlos Moya            8-4      1-1   85.7%     92.9%  
Stefan Edberg          8-3      2-0   84.6%    100.0%  
Marcelo Rios           5-3      2-0   80.0%    100.0%  
Novak Djokovic        10-3      4-1   72.2%     94.4%  
Nikolay Davydenko      8-3      4-1   68.8%     93.8%  
David Ferrer           7-2      3-2   64.3%     85.7%  
Marat Safin            7-0      2-3   58.3%     75.0%  
Roger Federer         10-4      2-8   58.3%     66.7%  
Boris Becker           5-2      5-3   46.7%     80.0%  
Andy Murray            3-2      3-4   41.7%     66.7%  
Jim Courier            6-0      6-3   40.0%     80.0%  
Rafael Nadal           9-1     10-5   40.0%     80.0%  
J M Del Potro          1-3      6-1   36.4%     90.9%  
Pete Sampras           8-3     16-6   33.3%     81.8%  
Andre Agassi           7-2    14-10   27.3%     69.7%  
Michael Chang          2-1     13-3   15.8%     84.2% 

Doubles Wins and Davis Cup Results

Today, Tomas Berdych added another chapter to his outstanding Davis Cup doubles career, partnering Radek Stepanek to give his Czech Republic a 2-1 lead in this weekend’s Davis Cup final.

The absence of Janko Tipsarevic meant that the doubles rubber was particularly crucial.  While Novak Djokovic will probably defeat Berdych tomorrow, Stepanek is equally likely to dismiss Dusan Lajovic, giving the Czechs a second consecutive Davis Cup title.

Since the Saturday doubles match is so often a pivotal juncture in a Davis Cup tie, I was curious whether the doubles match was particularly predictive of the end result.  If you’re a believer in momentum, it would seem possible.

However, if a side is to take a 2-1 lead, it’s better to win two singles matches and lose the doubles than to drop one of the singles matches.  Or, to put it another, probably more accurate, way: It’s best to have a squad that dominates the singles.  (Stunning insight, I know.)

There have been 435 World Group ties (including playoffs) since 1981 in which the outcome was undecided after the doubles match.  In 296 of those, the two sides split the singles.  In the other 139, one side swept the first-day singles and the opposing team won the doubles.

Of the first group of 296, the side that won the doubles won 80.4% of ties.  That pales in comparison to the singles-sweeping sample. Of those 139 ties, the side that won both singles and lost the doubles proved triumphant 93.5% of the time.

This shouldn’t be too surprising.  Momentum or no momentum, the third day of a Davis Cup tie is nothing but singles matches.  When the outcome is to be decided by two singles rubbers, would you rather have two great singles players or a pair of momentum-swaying doubles players?

Fortunately for the Czechs, 80% is still awfully good, and it probably understates the likelihood that Stepanek will beat Lajovic tomorrow.   Nice as it would have been to sweep opening-day singles, it helps to have a backup plan when Djokovic is playing for the other side.