The conventional wisdom has long held that there is a home court advantage in Davis Cup. It makes sense: In almost every sport, there is a documented advantage to playing at home, and Davis Cup gives us what seem to be the most extreme home courts in tennis.
However, Argentina won this year’s competition despite playing all four of their ties on the road. After the first round this season, only one of seven hosts managed to give the home crowd a victory. Bob Bryan has some ideas as to why:
Which is it? Do players excel in front of an enthusiastic home crowd, on a surface chosen for their advantage? Or do they suffer from the distractions that Bryan cites?
To answer that question, I looked at 322 Davis Cup ties, encompassing all World Group and World Group Play-off weekends back to 2003. Of those, the home side won 196, of 60.9% of the time. So far, the conventional wisdom looks pretty good.
But we need to do more. To check whether the hosting teams were actually better, meaning that they should have won more ties regardless of venue, I used singles and doubles Elo ratings to simulate every match of every one of those ties. (In cases where the tie was decided before the fourth or fifth rubber, I simulated matches between the best available players who could have contested those matches.) Based on those simulations, the hosts “should” have won 171 of the 322 ties, or 53.1%.
The evidence in favor of home-court advantage–and against Bryan’s “distractions” theory–is strong. Home sides have won World Group ties about 15% more often than we would expect. Some of that is likely due to the hosts’ ability to choose surface. I doubt surface accounts for the whole effect, since some court types (like the medium-slow hard court in Croatia last weekend) don’t heavily favor either side, and many ties are rather lopsided regardless of surface. Teasing out the surface advantage from the more intangible home-court edge is a worthy subject to study, but I won’t be going any further in that direction today.
If distractions are a danger to hosts, we might expect see the home court advantage erode in later rounds. Many early-round matchups are minor news events compared to semifinals and finals. (On the other hand, there were over 100 representatives of the Argentinian press in Croatia last weekend, so the effect isn’t entirely straightforward.) The following table shows how home sides have fared in each round:
Round Ties Home Win % Wins/Exp First Round 112 58.9% 1.11 Quarterfinal 56 60.7% 1.16 Semifinal 28 82.1% 1.30 Final 14 57.1% 1.14 Play-off 112 58.9% 1.14
Aside from a blip at the semifinal level, home-court advantage is quite consistent from one round to the next. The “Wins/Exp” shows how much better the hosts fared than my simulations would have predicted; for instance, in first-round encounters, hosts won 11% more ties than expected.
There is also no meaningful difference between home court advantage on day one and day three. The hosts’s singles players win 15% more matches than my simulations would expect on day one, and 15% more on day three. The day three divide is intriguing: Home players win the fourth rubber 12% more often than expected, but they claim the deciding fifth rubber a whopping 23% more frequently than they would in neutral environments. However, only 91 of the 322 ties involved five live rubbers, so the extreme home advantage in the deciding match may just be nothing more than a random spike.
The doubles rubber is less likely to be influenced by venue. Compared to the 15% advantage enjoyed by World Group singles players, the hosting side’s doubles pairings win only 6% more often than expected. This again raises the issue of surface: Not only are doubles results less influenced by court speed than singles results, but home sides are less likely to choose a surface based on the desire of their doubles team, if that preference clashes with the needs of their singles players.
Argentina on the road
In the sense that they never played at home or chose a surface, Argentina beat the odds in all four rounds this year. Of course, home court advantage can only take you so far; it helps to have a good squad. My simulations indicate that the Argentines had a nearly 4-in-5 chance of defeating their Polish first-round opponents on neutral ground, while Juan Martin del Potro and company had a more modest 59% chance of beating the Italians in Italy.
For the last two rounds, though, the Argentines were fighting an uphill battle. The semifinal venue in Glasglow didn’t matter much; the prospect of facing the Murray brothers meant Argentina had less than a 10% chance of advancing no matter what the location. And as I wrote last week, Croatia was rightfully favored in the final. Playing yet another tie on the road simply made the task more difficult.
Once we adjust my simulations of each tie for home court advantage, it turns out that Argentina’s chances of winning the Cup this year were less than 1%, barely 1 in 200. The following table shows the last 14 winners, along with the number of ties they played at home and their chances of winning the Cup in my simulations, given which countries they ended up facing and the players who turned up for each tie:
Year Winner Home Ties Win Prob 2016 ARG 0 0.5% 2015 GBR 3 18.9% 2014 SUI 2 54.7% 2013 CZE 1 10.5% 2012 CZE 3 19.7% 2011 ESP 2 12.2% 2010 SRB 3 17.6% 2009 ESP 4 44.0% 2008 ESP 1 14.3% 2007 USA 2 24.4% 2006 RUS 2 1.7% 2005 CRO 2 7.4% 2004 ESP 3 23.8% 2003 AUS 3 15.9%
In the time span I’ve studied, only the 2006 Russian squad managed anything close to the same season-long series of upsets. (I don’t yet have adequate doubles data to analyze earlier Davis Cup competitions.) At the other end of the spectrum, the simulations emphasize how smoothly Switzerland swept through the bracket in 2014. A wide-open draw, together with Roger Federer, certainly helps.
It was tough going for Argentina, and the luck of the home-court draw made it tougher. Without a solid #2 singles player or an elite doubles specialist, it isn’t likely to get much easier. For all that, they’ll open the 2017 Davis Cup campaign against Italy with at least one unfamiliar weapon in their arsenal: They finally get to play a tie at home.